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By Paul Rincon
Science editor, BBC News website
18 February 2015 Last updated at 08:06 ET


Scholz's star - artist's impression
Scholz's star - shown in this artist's impression - is currently 20 light-years away. But it once came much closer


No other star is known to have approached this close to us.

An international team of researchers says it came five times closer than our current nearest neighbour - Proxima Centauri.

The object, a red dwarf known as Scholz's star, cruised through the outer reaches of the Solar System - a region known as the Oort Cloud.

Scholz's star was not alone; it was accompanied on its travels by an object known as a brown dwarf. These are essentially failed stars that lacked the necessary mass to get fusion going in their cores.

The findings are published in Astrophysical Journal Letters .

Observations of the dim star's trajectory suggest that 70,000 years ago this cosmic infiltrator passed within 0.8 light years of the Sun. By comparison, Proxima Centauri is 4.2 light years away.

Close encounter

In the paper, astronomers led by Eric Mamajek at the University of Rochester, New York, say they are 98% certain that Scholz's star travelled through what is known as the "outer Oort Cloud" - a region at the edge of the Solar System filled with trillions of comets a mile or more across.

This region is like a spherical shell around the Solar System and may extend out to as much as 100,000 Astronomical Units, or AU (one AU is the distance between the Earth and the Sun).

The Oort Cloud is thought to give rise to long-period comets that can swing past the Sun when their orbits are disturbed.

Oort Cloud

To determine the trajectory of the star, the researchers needed two pieces of information: the change in distance from the Sun to the star (its radial velocity) and the star's motion across the sky (its tangential velocity).

Scholz's star currently lies 20 light years away - making it a fairly nearby system. But it showed very slow tangential motion for a star this close. This indicated that it was either moving away from us or towards a future close encounter with the Solar System.

The radial velocity measurements confirmed that the binary star system was actually speeding away from us. By tracing its movements back in time, they found its close shave with the Sun occurred some 70,000 years ago.

Grand theft Oort-o?

A star passing through the Oort Cloud could potentially play gravitational havoc with the orbits of comets there, sending them on trajectories into the inner Solar System. But Dr Mamajek believes the effects of Scholz's star on our cosmic neighbourhood were "negligible".

"There are trillions of comets in the Oort cloud and likely some of them were perturbed by this object," he told BBC News.

"But so far it seems unlikely that this star actually triggered a significant 'comet shower'."

The effect of a passing star on the Oort Cloud is a function of the star's mass, speed and proximity. The worst case scenario for stirring up comets would be a slow-moving, massive star that came close to the Sun.

Scholz's star came relatively close, but the binary system (the red dwarf and its brown dwarf companion) has a low mass and it was speeding by. These factors conspired to make its effect on the Oort Cloud very small.

While this is the closest flyby detected so far, Dr Mamajek thinks it's not uncommon for alien stars to buzz the Sun. He says a star probably passes through the Oort Cloud every 100,000 years, or so.

But he suggests an approach as close - or closer - than that made by Scholz's star is somewhat rarer. Dr Mamajek said mathematical simulations show such an event occurs on average about once every nine million years.

"So it is a bit of a strange coincidence that we happen to have caught one that passed so close within the past 100,000 years or so," he said.
NASA has dedicated February 1st as the day to remember those who gave the ultimate sacrifice in the name of exploration and for the improvement of all humankind.

Video in there Rememberence:



Apollo 1: January 27, 1967

Edward White (Command Pilot), Virgil "Gus" Grissom (Commander), Roger Chaffee (Pilot)
"They lived their lives in service to their country in the ongoing exploration of humankind's final frontier. Remember them not for how they died but for those ideals for which they lived."

Challenger STS-51L: January 28, 1986

Back row, left to right: Ellison S. Onizuka, Sharon Christa McAuliffe, Greg Jarvis, and Judy Resnik.
Front row, left to right: Michael J. Smith, Dick Scobee, and Ron McNair.

Columbia STS-107: February 1, 2003

Back row, left to right: David Brown, Laurel Clark, Michael Anderson, and Ilan Ramon.
Front row, left to right: Rick Husband, Kalpana Chawla, and William McCool.
"The same Creator who names the stars also knows the names of the seven souls we mourn today. The crew of the shuttle Columbia did not return safely to Earth; yet we can pray that all are safely home."
More Journal Entries

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We Are A space inspired Group we focus on Scientific expansion, Discovery and of course Space related items of interest. The Space Race is especially loved, we focus on our history as man in space.

The History of Man in Flight is also very Appreciated Aviation and Space are the focuses of interest.

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:star:How to Submit:star:

Criteria:

SUBMIT TO PROPER
FOLDERS!!!!

:bulletgreen: Only good quality works (Please think about resolution, scan quality,
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of other artists without their explicit and direct permission, stolen art will be removed and you will get a warning, if the problem continues you will be kicked by one of the admins.

:bulletgreen: Public domain works are excepted. As they are historical in nature and do
not require permission of the owner to use or redistribute.
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History as Man In Space

NASA.gov: www.nasa.gov/centers/hq/home/i…

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Live Star Charts: theskylive.com/

Current Weather Conditions at the Kennedy Space Center: forecast.weather.gov/MapClick.…

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Listen to an Airport near you !: www.liveatc.net/

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Like America's Fists on :facebook: Facebook www.facebook.com/pages/America…
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The Fallacy of the Moon Landing Hoax ! www.space.com/19531-moon-landi…
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www.youtube.com/watch?v=uEPmbL… NASA Anthem

www.youtube.com/watch?v=-8OpsP… Enterprise Music Video

www.youtube.com/watch?v=nVp0oa… History of the Federation
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www.youtube.com/watch?v=RKs6ik… First Orbit documentary

www.youtube.com/watch?v=JCPxA8… Freedom 7 documentary

www.youtube.com/watch?v=yLSLgr… Friendship 7 documentary

www.youtube.com/watch?v=YvB4Co… Apollo 8 documentary

www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Bjish… Part 2
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www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ifxjq9… First Moon Landing documentary

www.youtube.com/watch?v=TNQDsT… Skylab documentary

www.youtube.com/watch?v=PlqT1W… Apollo Soyuz documentary

www.youtube.com/watch?v=rWmYgq… Space Shuttle documentary

www.youtube.com/watch?v=1S-FA9… Mission to MIR

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www.youtube.com/watch?v=bABoVB… Part 2

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www.youtube.com/watch?v=0yDqd-… Part 4

www.youtube.com/watch?v=dGH2BQ… Part 5

www.youtube.com/watch?v=VOSsGd… Part 6

www.youtube.com/watch?v=SvaG0x… The Space Shuttle End of an Era
_______________________

www.youtube.com/watch?v=S1fO9Q… The Future of NASA

www.youtube.com/watch?v=6KlNJ2…

www.youtube.com/watch?v=sSF81y… SpaceX Launch Vehicle system

www.youtube.com/watch?v=vF_ibc…

www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&fea…

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:iconoriginalczechball:
originalCzechball Featured By Owner Jan 28, 2015
Can Poland into the space, please?
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:iconoriginalczechball:
originalCzechball Featured By Owner Jan 29, 2015
All horses went to Ikea, Polish national cuisine.
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:iconstig2112:
Stig2112 Featured By Owner Jan 26, 2015
Thank you for including my photos in your gallery! :)
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:iconbobcatt:
bobcatt Featured By Owner Dec 25, 2014  Professional General Artist
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:iconbobcatt:
bobcatt Featured By Owner Dec 19, 2014  Professional General Artist
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:iconzared-tregonwell:
Zared-Tregonwell Featured By Owner Dec 16, 2014  Hobbyist Artist
Thank you for adding my work to you group, I appreciate it :) 
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:icongeneraltate:
GeneralTate Featured By Owner Dec 17, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
You are most welcome :) 
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:iconcoffeebean2:
Coffeebean2 Featured By Owner Dec 14, 2014  Hobbyist Photographer
Well, thanks for featuring my art! Means a lot!
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:icongeneraltate:
GeneralTate Featured By Owner Dec 17, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
You are welcome :) please submit more ! 
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:iconcoffeebean2:
Coffeebean2 Featured By Owner Dec 17, 2014  Hobbyist Photographer
I'll be sure to!
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:iconscucca74:
scucca74 Featured By Owner Dec 14, 2014  New member Hobbyist Photographer
Thanks for adding my works to your gallery
😀
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:icongeneraltate:
GeneralTate Featured By Owner Dec 17, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
You are welcome, keep the good work coming ! :) 
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:iconwilliam-black:
William-Black Featured By Owner Edited Nov 14, 2014  Professional Digital Artist

GeneralTate makes comment below, my thoughts on the issue:

 

I don’t have to admit I blocked paradigm-shifting. I’ve never denied that.

I do not need to apologize, and have no intention of doing so.

 

When paradigm-shifting offered a link to a youtube video I looked through his gallery instead.

 

What I found was a rampant and overt hatred for the intellectual thought of others expressed in a cynical manner that I do not particularly care for.

 

paradigm-shifting is free to express such thought — I am free not to indulge it.

  

I blocked paradigm-shifting because we hold mutually antagonistic world views.  

There is no wrong in blocking someone when it is obvious that interaction would lead to conflict.

 

Free-will or self-determination refers to a characteristic of a person that leads them to make choices and decisions based on their own preferences and interests, to determine their own course of action without compulsion. Recognition of free-will is intrinsic to the concept of a free society.

 

You cannot force or compel anyone to interact with you, nor should you try. In a free society all human relationships are voluntary. Men are free to deal with one another or not, as their own individual judgments, convictions, and interests dictate.

 

paradigm-shifting is free to not like the fact I blocked him. He’s free to express that as much as he wants, he can post a million comments about it, and he can write a mountain of journals bitching about it if he wants to. I don’t particularly care.

 

The one thing I take exception to is his seizing my artwork and using it without permission. Because it is my property. I own it. I do not have to allow anyone to use it without permission.

 

paradigm-shifting didn’t have to “prove” I blocked him, I made it quite clear that I had, and paradigm-shifting did not just screen-cap the conversation showing I blocked him—though I do not care that he did—paradigm-shifting took a screen cap of my profile page and composed an artwork comprised of the screen-capped conversation and my artworks. This infringed seven of my artworks.

 

When someone copies your artwork and uses it without permission the law defines this as copyright infringement.

 

deviantArt has an excellent policy page which outlines copyright law, available here: Copyright Policy.

 

For the definitive law see: Copyright Law of the United States.

 

When someone copies your artwork and uses it without permission you, as the artist, creator, and owner of the work have the option of filing a DMCA Take Down Notice. Which is exactly what I did. This puts the infringer on notice that his use of your artwork was unauthorized and, in this case, it notifies deviantART that they have a predator in the membership. deviantART will take the infringing work down to avoid liability.

 

GeneralTate and paradigm-shifting have claimed that their use of my artwork was “criticism” under Copyright Right Act Fair Use Provision Title 17 Chapter 1 Article 107—however the fair use act is not a blank check to infringe the creative works of others, the deviantART  Copyright Policy warns that fair use should only be negotiated with the advisement of an attorney.

 

There is a reason this warning is there, if you are sued for infringement you will have no choice but to appear in court with legal defense, fees are $350 to $500 per hour, billed monthly, with a retainer, minimum up front $1,000, and be prepared to spend only $10,000 total if it is a quick open-and-shut case. These are the low end fees. Fines and damages if you lose can run into the $100,000 range and at the court’s discretion you can be required to pay the initiating parties legal expenses.

 

Even if you are not sued it does not mean the artist has ceded his ownership rights – the artist is free to file a DMCA every time their work is infringed with no consequence to his or her self so long as they misrepresent nothing. An artist owns his artwork at the point of creation. As an artist, your rights in regard to your own work are exclusive and you are free to exercise them at your discretion.

 

An infringer who uses artwork created by others without permission has no recognized ownership rights, and thus no protection.

 

That is the legal side.

 

On the public relationship side one has to wonder  what GeneralTate and paradigm-shifting are thinking:

 

This is an artist site; the largest site for artists on the planet.

 

Their group depends on artists submitting their art to the group.

 

Here on their group’s main page GeneralTate and paradigm-shifting have been publicly trumpeting, for weeks on end, that they feel they can and will infringe artists work for trivial and frivolous reasons.

 

How do you imagine this thread reads to artists who might be considering submitting their art to the group?

 

One has to wonder if Generaltate and paradigm-shifting have taken leave of their senses.

 

As for paradigm-shifting: most people understand that when you are blocked it means that individual wants nothing to do with you.

 

All of paradigm-shifting's issues and actions center around his difficulty with the free-will and self-determination of others, when someone chooses not to interact with him his choice of action is to take a piece of that individuals artwork "hostage" in order to force or compel that individual to interact with him.

 

In a free society there is no permissible application of force or compulsion. paradigm-shifting, in taking my artworks "hostage" in order to force my attention, is legally, ethically, and morally in the wrong, there really is no question in regards to this fact.

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:iconwilliam-black:
William-Black Featured By Owner Edited Nov 14, 2014  Professional Digital Artist

Why does god need a starship—well that’s really misdirection.

 

In the course of discussion GeneralTate was free to disagree with me, I had no problem with this, he was free to not follow the links and citation I provided, he was free to not respond, he was free to ignore me if he wanted. I really don’t care. He stated his opinions and I stated mine. See his comments and my responses here and here.

 

GeneralTate was blocked after he defended paradigm-shifting’s infringements and allowed the infringing works to be posted in the group, despite his own rule against this. GeneralTate blocked me October 5, 2014—the day paradigm-shifting infringed my art.

 

There was no “cause” at the start of this, there was only a discussion.

GeneralTate and paradigm-shifting decided to make this into an altercation.

Previous to that moment on October 5th I had only made honest comment on three NASA-Headquarters group journals, and had a large number of my artworks in the group galleries. I pulled all of my artwork out of the group the moment GeneralTate defended and cheered paradigm-shifting’s act of infringement and allowed his infringing works to be posted in the group.

 

paradigm-shifting has only been in NASA-Headquarters group as a co-founder since the beginning of October, he infringed my art the first time on October 5th.

 

My only issue with GeneralTate is he admittedly participated in and cheered the infringement of my artwork.

 

Anyone who commented on and is approving of paradigm-shifting’s acts of infringement will find themselves blocked.

 

Artists who approve of infringement are not individuals I would want faving or commenting on my work.

 

For those who want to know both sides of this altercation see the following journals:

 

Infringing Art Posted by NASA-Headquarters Group.

 

Repeat Performance: It's About The Numbers.

 

2nd Infringement NASA-Headquarters Group.

 

As for my own pages I have rules about comments and argument you can read them in my journals:

 

Orion's Arm Future History FAQ, Entry One.

 

Orion's Arm Future History FAQ, Entry Two.

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:iconparadigm-shifting:
paradigm-shifting Featured By Owner Edited Nov 12, 2014  Professional General Artist
He DMCA'd that one, but thats okay. Submitted a counter claim, this will be easy as pie. 
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